Surface radiation measurements and other climatological data were used to validate the representation of the surface energy balance over the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in the U.K. Meteorological Office Unified Climate Model. Model calculations of incident and reflected shortwave radiation are in good agreement with observations, but the downward component of longwave radiation at the surface appears to be underestimated by up to 20 W m−2 in the model. Over much of the interior of Antarctica this error appears to be compensated for by an overestimate in turbulent transport of heat to the surface, while over the steep coastal slopes the heat flux is in good agreement with observations but the surface temperature is too low. The excessive heat flux over the interior results largely from the use of an inappropriately large bulk transfer coefficient under very stable conditions, suggesting that the surface heat flux scheme in the model is not ideally formulated for the conditions that prevail in the Antarctic boundary layer.
View post tag: Hadis Back to overview,Home naval-today Iranian Navy Saves Hadis Cargo Ship from Pirates August 2, 2011 View post tag: Navy Iranian Navy Saves Hadis Cargo Ship from Pirates View post tag: ship View post tag: Pirates View post tag: Iranian The Islamic Republic of Iran’s Navy warship fleet has thwarted four attempts by pirates to hijack an Iranian commercial ship in the Red Sea…(presstv)[mappress]Source: presstv, August 2, 2011; View post tag: Naval View post tag: News by topic View post tag: Saves View post tag: cargo Share this article
View post tag: Games Norway: Snowstorm Lashes Navy’s Arctic War Games View post tag: Navy’s March 15, 2012 View post tag: News by topic View post tag: Navy View post tag: Naval Back to overview,Home naval-today Norway: Snowstorm Lashes Navy’s Arctic War Games View post tag: Lashes View post tag: Snowstorm Share this article Training & Education View post tag: Arctic Sailors and marines were buffeted by high winds and pelted by snow and ice as Arctic war games got under way. A blizzard brought flying operations aboard helicopter carrier HMS Illustrious to a standstill in northern Norway, but nearby flagship HMS Bulwark continued to put Dutch marines ashore by landing craft.Flying operations were brought to an immediate halt aboard the Portsmouth-based helicopter carrier, leading Britain’s participation in NATO’s winter exercises in northern Norway, as flurries swept through Vågsfjorden, near the port of Harstad.Commando Helicopter Force Lynx and Sea Kings were all set to embark the Royal Marines of Kilo Company, 42 Commando, when the weather took a turn for the worse – and all flying operations were postponed until further notice.With aircraft arrayed on deck, however, there was small matter of making sure they were safe for the duration of the snowstorm.Flight deck crews and aircraft maintainers had to battle high winds and blizzard conditions to secure the aircraft to the deck or move them to the relative warmth of the hangar before retreating inside for a well-earned cuppa.And once the snow had abated somewhat, the aircraft handlers returned to 600-ft-long deck to shovel the snow – now several centimetres deep – over the side so the helicopters could resume operations.Right now, it’s actually quite mild in Harstad – one of the focal points of Exercise Cold Response – with temperatures hovering around 0˚C by day and dropping to about –6˚C or so by night, but away from the coast, where some of the major exercise plays out, it can plunge to -30˚C.Illustrious is acting as the command ship for Maj Gen Ed Davis, Commandant General Royal Marines, who with his Commander Amphibious Forces staff will be directing the movements of Allied warships during the NATO exercise.The ten-day war game sees an international task force gathering in the waters of the Arctic as the situation in the fictional ‘Nerthus’ region (actually northern Norway) deteriorates with the forces of ‘Gardarland’ refusing to withdraw its troops from neighbouring ‘Borgland’.The multinational naval force is being held at on high alert offshore, readying itself for potential intervention in the disputed area.For Lusty, that means her ship’s company working around the clock in preparation for amphibious operations that may be required of them, the embarked Royal Marines and the helicopters of the Commando Helicopter Force.It is particularly challenging for those working on the flight deck. Day and night, they are facing blizzards and strong winds that can drop the temperature to minus -40˚C as they marshal and refuel the essential helicopters. At temperatures that low, exposed skin can freeze almost instantly.Illustrious has eight helicopters embarked, all from RNAS Yeovilton in Somerset: four Sea King Mk 4 from 845 and 846 Naval Air Squadrons, three Lynx Mk 7 from 847 Naval Air Squadron and one Lynx Mk 8 from 815 Naval Air Squadron.With all of the aircrew needing to prepare for operating from the Ship in arduous conditions the result is a very busy flight deck.“Illustrious and her embarked helicopter squadrons are certainly facing some tough Arctic conditions,” explains the carrier’s Commanding Officer, Capt Martin Connell.“We have prepared for this, both in terms of training and with all our equipment, and I am very pleased with the way the crew have approached the exercise throughout the ship. “In particular the positive attitude and cheery enthusiasm of those operating on the flight deck has been vital and has allowed Illustrious to conduct helicopter operations around the clock in support of the multinational task force.” Meanwhile, just a few miles away from Illustrious – and undaunted by the flurries – the Navy’s flagship HMS Bulwark has been carrying out amphibious exercises with her landing craft.The assault ship has been training with the Korps Mariniers – the Dutch counterpart of the Royal Marines and long-standing partners of the green berets.Before there could be any thought of landing the Dutch marines at Red Beach on a military exercise area near Harstad, the Anglo-Dutch staff had to plan the complex exercise.In true improvised fashion they did so with black and yellow masking tape, stuck to the deck in a planning room aboard Bulwark to create a rough map of the shores around Harstad, and small pieces of card to designate ships and ground troops in the area.The two-hour-long planning session was overseen by Cdre Paddy McAlpine, Commander UK Task Group, and his staff who are directing amphibious operations by Bulwark and her subordinate ships and units.The link-up with the Dutch also saw landing craft from Bulwark’s permanent Royal Marines unit, 4 Assault Group, train with Netherland’s assault ship HNMLS Rotterdam, which is a cross between Bulwark and the Royal Fleet Auxiliary’s Bay-class landing support ships.In all, some 16,000 sailors, soldiers and airmen from 15 nations, led by the hosts Norway, are taking part in Cold Response which tests the ability of NATO’s forces to fight in the harshest environment imaginable.The war games, which sees major participation from Canada, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and USA as well as Britain, is due to end next Wednesday [MARCH 21].[mappress]Naval Today Staff , March 15, 2012; Image: navy View post tag: War
Back to overview,Home naval-today Sri Lankan Navy Arrests 5 Persons Illegally Diving for Conch Shells, Sea Cucumbers View post tag: Conch – 05 nos – 01 pair View post tag: News by topic Share this article d. – a. View post tag: Navy – Diving Masks Diving Kit March 21, 2012 c. View post tag: Illegally Naval personnel attached to SLNS Agbo of the Northern Naval Command arrested 05 persons illegally diving to collect conch shells and sea cucumbers in the seas off Kusumanthurai and Mathagalthurai on 19th March 2012.The arrested persons and the items in their possession were handed over to Fisheries Inspectors at Kusumanthurai and Mathagalthurai respectively for onward action.The following are the items taken into custody from their possession: 11 nos [mappress]Naval Today Staff , March 21, 2012; Image: navy View post tag: sea View post tag: Persons View post tag: Cucumbers b. View post tag: Diving Sri Lankan Navy Arrests 5 Persons Illegally Diving for Conch Shells, Sea Cucumbers Diving Fins View post tag: Shells View post tag: Naval 01 no View post tag: Arrests Sea Cucumbers View post tag: Sri Lankan
The US Navy accepted delivery of the USNS Trenton (JHSV 5), its fifth joint high speed vessel, April 13.Having completed acceptance trials only a month ago, the ship continues to meet key milestones as it progresses towards operational status. Now delivered to the Navy, the ship’s crew will begin move-aboard and familiarization before the ship sails away from the shipyard to begin her shakedown period and final contract trials later this year.The first two ships of the class, USNS Spearhead (JHSV 1) and USNS Choctaw County (JHSV 2) have already demonstrated their inherent flexibility participating in international exercises and missions. Strategic and Theater Sealift Program Manager Capt. Henry Stevens, said:What really sets these vessels apart is their speed, agility and transport capability. Trenton can travel thousands of miles without refueling and has over 20,000 feet of stowage space in her mission bay for everything from vehicles and military cargo to humanitarian supplies. That means we can equip our troops and allies with mission essential supplies faster than ever before. Back to overview,Home naval-today USNS Trenton Joins US Navy’s Fleet View post tag: Naval Share this article Authorities View post tag: US Navy USNS Trenton will be owned and operated by Military Sealift Command (MSC) and will be manned by a crew of 22 civil service mariners. The vessel is the fifth JHSV built by Austal at its shipyard in Mobile, Alabama, under a 10 ship, US$1.6 billion contract. Austal will deliver a further five Joint High Speed Vessels from its shipyard at Mobile, Alabama, with three currently under construction. USNS Trenton (JHSV 5) will soon be followed by Brunswick (JHSV 6) which Austal will launch this Spring and deliver later this year. Fabrication is well underway on Carson City (JHSV 7) and the first aluminum was cut earlier this year for Yuma (JHSV 8).[mappress mapid=”15665″]Image: Austal View post tag: Navy USNS Trenton Joins US Navy’s Fleet View post tag: americas View post tag: News by topic April 15, 2015 View post tag: USNS Trenton View post tag: Austal
We hope that today’s “READERS FORUM” will provoke honest and open dialogue concerning issues that we, as responsible citizens of this community, need to address in a rational and responsible way? WHATS ON YOUR MIND TODAY?Todays“Readers Poll” question is: Do you feel that elected officials should be allowed to award no-bid contracts to people who give contributions to their political campaigns?If you would like to advertise on the CCO please contact us [email protected]: City-County Observer Comment Policy. Be kind to people. No personal attacks or harassment will not be tolerated and shall be removed from our site.We understand that sometimes people don’t always agree and discussions may become a little heated. The use of offensive language, insults against commenters will not be tolerated and will be removed from our site. FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmail Any comments posted in this column do not represent the views or opinions of the City-County Observer or our advertisers
The Project 21â Scholarship Program at Tropicana Evansville is part of an industry-wide initiative to stop casino gambling by people under the age of 21. Tropicana Evansville achieves this objective by using one of the best tools available – education. Students between the ages of 17 and 21 are given the chance to design and submit a poster, a video or a written essay to educate other young people that it is not permissible in Indiana to gamble in a casino under the age of 21. Tri-state area high schools, technical schools, and colleges have participated in this scholarship program over the past several years. Each year $6,000 in scholarship money is awarded to the best entries. Tropicana Evansville has awarded over $52,000 in scholarships to area students since the Evansville program began.The 2016 Project 21â Scholarship winners areBest Poster – Makenzie Harrison of Vincennes Lincoln High School, Vincennes, INMakenzie plans to attend Butler University to study Pharmacy.Best Video – Harrison Higgs of North High School in Evansville, INHarrison plans to attend IUPUI to study Business and Photography.Best Essay – Holly Bittner of Gibson Southern High School, Fort Branch, INHolly plans to attend Vincennes University to study Public Relations.Photos attached:(1) Makenzie Harrison of Vincennes Lincoln High School(2) Harrison Higgs of North High School in Evansville, IN(3) Holly Bittner of Gibson Southern High School FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmail
This uses Baktem Blue (used at 20% on flour weight) for fermented buns, a ready-to-use crossing mix and a ready-to-use bun glaze. Baktem Spiced Bun Concentrate, a ready-spiced mix (25% on flour weight), is also available.Ingredients kgFlour4.000Baktem Blue 20%0.800Yeast0.200Water2.240Currants1.000Sultanas1.000Peel (if required)0.038Bun spice flavour0.035Total9.3131. Mix all ingredients together (conventional mixer: 15 minutes; spiral: 2 minutes slow, 6 minutes fast).2. Scale as required, prove 50-55 minutes (approx) at 38ºC, 80% humidity.3. Bake at 230ºC for approx 12-15 minutes.Scale weights:840g for 30 or 1008g for 36 = 28g for minis (batch in 15s).2,250g for 30 or 2,700g for 36 = 75g (40 per tray 5 x 8).Cost per unit: 6.7pRRP: £1.39p for a pack of six, giving them a profit of 91p and a margin in excess of 65% per pack even after factoring in labour costs.
At a time when social media affects everything from our private lives to our public discourse, the rules governing online behavior are increasingly under scrutiny. At Facebook, the process behind those rules — how they are determined, and how they continue to change — is the province of Monika Bickert, the head of global policy management.On Monday, Bickert, who holds a J.D. from Harvard Law School, joined Jonathan Zittrain, the George Bemis Professor of International Law, for a wide-ranging conversation about the social media giant’s policies and its evolution. The event, which included tough questions from audience members on the company’s recent headline-making controversies, was hosted by the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society.Citing his sense of the “pessimism and near-despair that permeate our feelings about social media,” Zittrain opened the conversation by recalling a September 2017 discussion in which he and Bickert looked at the rise of white nationalism and the first indications of how social media manipulation had been at play in the 2016 elections. Since then, of course, more information about fake accounts and online attacks has come to light.“It’s been a long year,” Zittrain added, before asking Bickert how the time had been spent.Much of it has been focused on process, answered Bickert. Specifically, she described the company’s efforts to update and implement standards and rules, and to make them as transparent as possible. Addressing the first, she explained how Facebook sets the guidelines for its approximately 2.2 billion regular users, 87 percent of whom are outside the U.S.“Every single decision we make is vetted across the company,” she said.Bickert oversees 11 locations around the world. These operations are staffed by lawyers, as well as by specialists in such areas as child sexual abuse, terrorism, and hate speech. The centers set and oversee standards, handling more than a million reports a day in areas including fake accounts, violence and criminal behavior, and sexual solicitation.Many of those reports are evaluated by increasingly sophisticated algorithms. Terrorist propaganda, for example, uses various patterns and phrases that are easy for machines to recognize. Other offenses have been harder to codify, meaning that many posts still need to be seen by one or more of the company’s 15,000 content reviewers.Context shades meaning, and subtleties of expression may elude a program, Bickert said. For example, “If you don’t come to my party I’ll kill you,” is probably not a real threat, even if an algorithm might mark it as one.The rules of what is permissible have changed over time, Bickert noted. The definition of hate speech, for example, has been broken down into three tiers. The first two involve attacks on a person or group of people because of a characteristic such as ethnicity, nationality, gender, or sexual orientation. Posts or comments that fall into these tiers are not allowed on the platform. However, a third tier involves posts that call for the exclusion or segregation of a certain group, which may be allowed in the context of a political discussion about policy.“‘Burn the immigrants’ … is hate speech,” Bickert explained. “‘I don’t want more immigrants,’ we would allow. We want people to discuss immigration.”How Facebook responds to such posts differs as well. Offensive posts that are caught on review will be taken down. Others, caught by technology, will not even be uploaded. Those that are explicitly criminal will be sent to the relevant authorities.“If it’s child sexual abuse we don’t just stop the upload, we report it,” said Bickert.Exactly what gets reported and to whom can be a thorny question. In countries with more restrictive laws governing speech, some posts may break laws but not international norms. Bickert used the example of flag burning, which is illegal in India. After considering issues of legality, she said, a flag-burning post would be removed or blocked in that country, she said, but not in others.Attendees pushed back at several points, addressing recent controversies including Facebook’s hiring of an opposition research firm to investigate critics of company policy and behavior.While Bickert answered that her work does not touch directly on the company’s strategic efforts, she acknowledged that there have been areas where content-moderation policies have resulted in valid criticism, and said the company has been working to be more inclusive in its decision-making.
As participants in a semester-long course, Notre Dame undergraduates have the rare opportunity to contribute to real clinical research about Niemann – Pick Type C (NP-C) disease. The course, titled “Clinical research in developing health networks in rare and neglected diseases,” is one of only a few similar courses offered at universities around the country, said Katrina Epperson, program coordinator for the Center for Rare and Neglected Diseases at Notre Dame. “There are 17 symptoms of NP-C and the students track the nine major ones,” Epperson said. “The students look at medical records to give a score to each doctor visit. This then helps track the progression of the disease.” Notre Dame gives its results from the course to The National Institute of Health (NIH), which is currently conducting the only clinical trial on NP-C in the United States. According to NIH’s website, NP-C is an inherited metabolic disorder that causes harmful amounts of fatty substances to collect in the brain, bone marrow, spleen, lungs and liver. NP-C is classified as a liposomal storage disorder, where cells do not trap cholesterol in the proper manner. Cholesterol builds up, which affects the central nervous system and causes the deterioration of the brain. Also known as “childhood Alzheimer’s,” NP-C effects one in 200,000 people, Epperson said. “Because this disease affects such a small group, it is really hard to find people to do a clinical trial,” Epperson said. Biology Professor Kasturi Haldar, director of Notre Dame’s Center for Rare and Neglected Diseases, teaches the course. Mollie Howard, a senior biology major, is one of 30 students enrolled in the course this semester. “I was looking for another biology elective and this sounded really interesting,” Howard said. “There is no cure for NP-C and there’s a delay from when the child starts to show symptoms and is diagnosed.” Notre Dame became associated with NP-C through former head football coach Ara Parseghian, who has three grandchildren who died from NP-C. He started the Ara Parseghian Medical Research Foundation to raise awareness about NP-C and fund research. “This is close to the community,” Epperson said. “There are 7,000 rare diseases and with the creation of the Center for Rare and Neglected Diseases, it makes it hard to just pick one [to study]. This relationship helped us choose.” After the students learn how to follow the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA), they make presentations about the families that are suffering from NP-C in an attempt to put a face to medical records. Epperson said students may eventually be able to meet some of the patients whose medical records they research. “We want if possible to include actually meeting some of these patients,” Epperson said. One concern with bringing patients into the class is respect for the patients’ privacy, Epperson said. “We want to respect the patients and not make them feel like they’re on display,” she said. In the meantime, Epperson said there are other ways for the students to understand the lives of the patients who they research. “The Discovery Channel came and taped a show about NP-C, so now we can show the students the video,” she said.